Glossary - Key terms and acronyms used in the administration of sponsored programs

Section:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


A  

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Acceptance

Contract acceptance is the agreement and performance of the parties to the offer in a contract. 

Administrative Policies and Procedures Manual (APPM)

The Administrative Policies and Procedures Manual (APPM) is the official compilation of the university's administrative policies and procedures.

Allocable Costs

Those allowable costs that actually benefit the grant or contract to which they are being charged.

Allowable Costs

A cost that is reasonable for the conduct of the work approved; is consistent with regulations, policies, and procedures; is consistent with the policies and procedure of the Awardee; is applied uniformly to other activities of similar nature; and is allocable and reasonable.

Applied Research

[e]fforts that attempt to determine and exploit the potential of scientific discoveries or improvement in technology such as new materials, devices methods, and processes.

 -32 CFR 37.1220

Assignment

The act by which one party transfers to another party, or causes to vest in that other party, the whole of the right, interest, or property of the assigning party.

Assistance Agreement

A legal instrument used to transfer funds for a public purpose, such as a grant or a cooperative agreement.

At-Risk Spending

Work devoted and expenditures made on an award that is anticipated but that has not yet been executed. 

Audit

A formal examination of an organization's or individual's accounts or financial situation. An audit may also include examination of compliance with applicable terms, laws, and regulations.

Authorized Organization Representative (AOR)

The individual, named by the applicant organization, who is authorized to act for the applicant and to assume the obligations imposed by the U.S. federal law, regulations, requirements, and conditions that apply to grant applications or grant awards.

Award

Funds that have been obligated by a funding agency for a particular project.

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BAA

A Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) is an announcement of a federal agency's general research interests that invites proposals and specifies the general terms and conditions under which an award may be made.

Banner

Wayne State's business operations solution, an integrated database system used to manage student and employee information and business processes. Access to Banner relies on strict security measures and is only given to eligible employees.

Basic Research

[the] systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable facts without specific applications towards processes or products in mind. It includes all scientific study and experimentation directed toward increasing fundamental knowledge and understanding in those fields of the physical, engineering, environmental, and life sciences…It is farsighted, high payoff research that provides the basis for technological progress.

Bequests

A type of donation or gift. Bequests and gifts are awards given with few or no conditions specified. Gifts may be provided to establish an endowment or to provide direct support for existing programs. Frequently, gifts are used to support developing programs for which other funding is not available. The unique flexibility, or lack of restriction, makes gifts attractive sources of support.

Biosketch

A written document that highlights an individual's qualifications for a specific role in a proposed project. 

Broad Agency Announcement (BAA)

An announcement of a federal agency's general research interests that invites proposals and specifies the general terms and conditions under which an award may be made.

Budget

The financial plan for the project or program that the awarding agency or pass-through entity approves during the award process or in subsequent amendments to the award. As required, it may include both the sponsor and recipient share or only the sponsor share. Typically, the budget is made of direct costs and indirect (F&A) costs. 

Budget Adjustment

The act of amending the budget by moving funds from one category or line item to another. (See Re-budget)

Budget Justification

Provides written information for reviewers of the sponsor or other committees to determine whether all items of the budget are realistic and justifiable in terms of the aims and methods of the project and currently available resources. 

Budget Period

The interval of time – usually twelve months – into which the project period is divided for budgetary and funding purposes.

Business Associates Agreements

An agreement used to share or transfer protected health information, as required under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) rules.  Note: these can also be called BAA.

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Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)

An e-gov initiative managed by the General Services Administration (GSA). It contains financial and nonfinancial assistance programs administered by departments and establishments of the federal government. As the basic reference source of federal programs, the primary purpose of the Catalog is to assist users in identifying programs that meet specific objectives of the potential applicant and to obtain general information on federal assistance programs. The CFDA describes major funding programs, not individual opportunities. The numbering system is organized by agency. For example, NSF 47.041 is NSF Engineering grants. 

Cayuse Sponsored Projects (SP)

The electronic system of record for all sponsored projects from extramural funding sources utilized for internal routing, review and approval prior to proposal submission to sponsor.  Corresponding award records are created for funded projects and reported to the Board of Governors.

Cayuse Proposals (S2S)

System-to-system interface with Grants.gov for preparation and submission of federal grant proposals.  Cayuse Proposals is utilized in conjunction with Cayuse SP for federal submissions.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.   The CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register (part of the National Archives and Records Administration) and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the e-CFR website, which is updated daily.

Challenge Grant

A grant that provides monies in response to monies from other sources, usually according to a formula. A challenge grant may, for example, offer two dollars for every one that is obtained from a fund drive. The grant usually has a fixed upper limit and, may have a challenge minimum below which no grant will be made. This form of grant is common in the arts, humanities, and some other fields, but is less common in the sciences. A challenge grant differs from a matching grant in at least one important respect: The amount of money that the recipient organization realizes from a challenge grant may vary widely; depending upon how successful that organization is in meeting the challenge. Matching grants usually award a clearly defined amount and require that a specified sum be obtained before any award is made. (see Matching Grant)

Change Order

A written order signed by the contracting officer directing the contractor to make changes that the change clauses of the contract authorizes the contracting officer to order without the consent of the contractor.

Clause

A term or condition used in contracts or in both solicitations and contracts and applying after contract award or both before and after award. Clause may also be stated as Article, Provision, etc.

Close out

The act of completing all internal procedures and sponsor requirements to terminate or complete a research project.

Cognizant Agency for Indirect Costs

The federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals developed under this part on behalf of all federal agencies. The cognizant agency for indirect cost is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for audit. For assignments of cognizant agencies see the following: 

(1) For IHEs: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix III, C.11. 

(2) For nonprofit organizations: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix IV, C.2. 

(3) For state and local governments: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix V, F.1. 

(4) For Indian tribes: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix VII, D.1.

COLA

The cost of living adjustment is an increase in an expense that is intended to keep up with the rising costs. It is often applied to wages, salaries, and benefits. 

Community of Science (COS)

Community of Science (COS) Pivot helps us find new federal, foundation, and nonprofit funding opportunities. Pivot combines the most comprehensive, editorially maintained database of 3 million pre-populated scholar profiles, drawing from Community of Scholars and Community of Science profiles. The funding information provided by COS is drawn from regularly-updated information in the COS Funding Opportunities database of more than 21,000 grants. Each funding opportunity listed in COS Funding Alert contains information such as title, sponsor, deadline and amount, while also providing a link to more detailed information. Community of Science was a collection of online databases, providing research information to both the public and subscribers, and services for the research community. It is owned by ProQuest. 

Competing Applications

New or renewal applications that must undergo initial peer review. 

Competing Proposals

Proposals that are submitted for the first time or unfunded proposals that are resubmitted; either must compete for research funds. Ongoing projects must compete again if the term of the original award has expired. 

Computing Devices

Machines used to acquire, store, analyze, process, and publish data and other information electronically, including accessories (or ''peripherals'') for printing, transmitting and receiving, or storing electronic information.

Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA)

A Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) is a document granting a recipient limited authority to use or disclose the confidential information of another.

Confidentiality

A clause that defines the research contract, the results, or another portion of information under contract as being confidential, secret, or privileged.

Conflict of Interests (COI)

A situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another. 

Consideration

The benefit each party gets or is expecting to get as a result of the contractual agreement. Consideration does not have to include money. It has to be something of value deemed appropriate by both parties. Anything of value promised by one party in exchange for something else is referred to as consideration. 

Consistent Cost

A cost that is routinely budgeted as a direct or an indirect cost under like circumstances.

Consortium Agreement

Group of collaborative investigators/institutions; arrangement can be formalized with specified terms and conditions.

Continuation Project (Non-competing)

Applicable to grants and cooperative agreements only. A project approved for multiple-year funding, although funds are typically committed only one year at a time. At the end of the initial budget period, progress on the project is assessed. If satisfactory, an award is made for the next budget period, subject to availability of funds. Continuation projects do not compete with new project proposals and are not subjected to peer review beyond the initial budget approval.

Contract

An agreement between two or more parties that create mutual obligations that are enforceable by law.  A contract's purpose is "to acquire (by purchase, lease, or barter) property or services for the direct benefit or use of the United States Government."  -31 U.S.C. § 6303

Contracting Officer (CO)

A Contracting Office (CO) is a person with the authority to enter into, administer, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings. The term includes certain authorized representatives of the contracting officer acting within the limits of their authority as delegated by the contracting officer.  48 CFR Subpart 2.1 Definitions

Cooperative Agreement

A legal instrument of financial assistance between a federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-federal entity that, consistent with 31 U.S.C. 6302–6305: 

(a) Is used to enter into a relationship the principal purpose of which is to transfer anything of value from the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to the non-federal entity to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the United States (see 31 U.S.C. 6101(3)); and not to acquire property or services for the federal government or pass-through entity's direct benefit or use; 

(b) Is distinguished from a grant in that it provides for substantial involvement between the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-federal entity in carrying out the activity contemplated by the federal award. 

(c) The term does not include: (1) a cooperative research and development agreement as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a; or (2) an agreement that provides only: (i) direct United States Government cash assistance to an individual; (ii) a subsidy; (iii) a loan; (iv) a loan guarantee; or (v) insurance.  2 CFR § 200.24

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA)

An agreement between a federal laboratory and a non-federal research partner to cooperate on a joint research project where the parties share resources, personnel, services, facilities, equipment, and intellectual property without the transfer of funds from the federal laboratory. 

Co-I

Co-Investigators (Co-I) are key personnel who have responsibilities similar to PIs on research projects.  While the PI has ultimate responsibility for the conduct of a research project, the Co-I is also obligated to ensure the project is conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and institutional policy governing the conduct of sponsored research.

Co-Investigator (Co-I)

Co-Is are key personnel who have responsibilities similar to that of a PI on research projects.  While the PI has ultimate responsibility for the conduct of a research project, Co-I is also obligated to ensure the project is conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and institutional policy governing the conduct of sponsored research.

Cost Accounting Standards (CAS)

Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) refers to federally mandated accounting standards intended to ensure uniformity in budgeting and spending funds - OR - Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) refers to the set of 19 standards that ensure practices governing the measurement, assignment, and allocation of costs regarding assistance and contracts with the United States are conducted in a consistent manner.

Cost of Living Adjustment

An increase in an expense that is intended to keep up with the rising costs. It is often applied to wages, salaries, and benefits. 

Cost Plus Fees

A pricing model that provides for the contractor's reimbursable costs, as in a cost reimbursable contract, and an additional fee.

Cost-Reimbursement Type Contract/Grant

A contract/grant for which the sponsor pays for the full costs incurred in the conduct of the work up to an agreed-upon amount.

Cost Share

Cost share (or match) is the portion of the costs of a federally assisted project or program not borne by the federal government. You can have mandatory cost share that is required by the sponsor; voluntary cost share that is not required by the sponsor but quantified and committed in the proposal and becomes binding when the award is issued; or voluntary uncommitted cost share that is not quantified in the proposal and not binding upon receipt of the award.

CPT Code

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Code is the standardized list of alphanumeric codes developed by the American Medical Association and used to budget and bill for medical, surgical, and diagnostic procedures. 

CRADA or CRDA

A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is an agreement between a federal laboratory and a non-federal research partner to cooperate on a joint research project where the parties share resources, personnel, services, facilities, equipment, and intellectual property without the transfer of funds from the federal laboratory. 

Current Procedural Terminology Code (CPT Code)

Standardized list of alphanumeric codes developed by the American Medical Association and used to budget and bill for medical, surgical, and diagnostic procedures.

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Data Management Plan

A data management plan is a written document that outlines how data are to be acquired or generated, managed, described, analyzed, and stored, and what mechanisms will be used at the end of the project to share and preserve the data.

Data Ownership

Data ownership refers to both the possession of and responsibility for information. 

Data Use Agreements (DUA)

An agreement that governs the transfer of data from one entity to another wherein there are conditions that govern the use and disclosure of the data.

Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number

The nine-digit number established and assigned by Dun and Bradstreet, Inc. (D&B) to uniquely identify entities. A non-federal entity, both domestic and international, is required to have a DUNS number to apply for, receive, and report on a U.S. Federal award. A DUNS number may be obtained from D&B at http://fedgov.dnb.com/webformAlso, see Systems Award Management (SAM).

Deadline Date

Dates after which proposals will not be accepted for review by a sponsor.

Deemed Export

Deemed export is controlled information (as specified in the regulations) that is released to a foreign national in the U.S. under the regulations, such a transfer is considered an export to the individual's home country. 

Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement (DFARS)

A supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) that provides the specific acquisition regulations for research projects sponsored by the Department of Defense.  Also, see Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR)

Deficit

Expenditures exceeding funds available, or, with respect to a fiscal year, the amount by which outlays exceeds receipts during that year – 2 U.S. Code § 622

Department of Defense (DoD)

The mission of the Department of Defense (DoD) is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of our country.   The Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard are the armed forces of the United States. The Army National Guard and the Air National Guard are reserve components of their services and operate in part under state authority. https://www.defense.gov/

Department of Education (ED)

ED's mission is to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access by:

Establishing policies on federal financial aid for education, and distributing as well as monitoring those funds

Collecting data on U.S. schools and disseminating research

Focusing national attention on key educational issues

Prohibiting discrimination and ensuring equal access to education      https://www.ed.gov/

Department of Energy (DOE)

The Department of Energy works to ensure America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions. https://www.energy.gov/

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS or HHS)

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services works to enhance and protect the health and well-being of all Americans by providing for effective health and human services and fostering advances in medicine, public health, and social services. https://www.hhs.gov/

DFARS

The Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement (DFARS) is a supplement to the FAR that provides the specific acquisition regulations for research projects sponsored by the Department of Defense.

DHHS

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services works to enhance and protect the health and well-being of all Americans by providing for effective health and human services and fostering advances in medicine, public health, and social services. https://www.hhs.gov/

Direct Costs

Costs that can be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity, or that can be directly assigned to such activities relatively easily with a high degree of accuracy. General categories of direct costs include but are not limited to salaries and wages, fringe benefits, supplies, contractual services, travel and communication, equipment, and computer use.

Disallowed Costs

Those charges to a federal award that the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines to be unallowable, in accordance with the applicable federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the federal award.

Disputes/Arbitration

A clause that details how the parties will deal with a disagreement regarding the lawful existence of a right or compensation by an injured party.  The Federal Arbitration Act, which is encoded in the United States Code at 9 U.S.C. Section 1, et seq., grants an explicit right to parties to resolve legal disputes privately through a certified arbitrator. The parties must mutually consent to arbitration for the decision of the arbitrator to be a binding result.

Donation

Transfer of equipment, money, goods, services, and property with or without specifications as to its use. Sometimes donation is used to designate contributions that are made with more specific intent than is usually the case with a gift, but the two terms are often used interchangeably. (Also see Gift)

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Effort Reporting

A process mandated by the federal government to verify that direct labor charges to, or cost shared on, sponsored projects are accurate, timely, and reflect the actual level of work performed.

Electronic Research Administration (eRA)

Conducting research administration by utilizing electronic resources such as the internet, the World Wide Web, form templates, databases, and other electronic tools.  Public Law (PL) 106 & 107 Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act of 1999 mandated the use of a "common application and reporting system." This forced federal agencies to work together on a common system through the Grants Policy Committee (GPC). The result is Grants.gov.  Many sponsors now rely upon electronic communication with their grantees and upon secure sites to receive grant applications, to communicate funding decisions, to accept reports, and to close out research projects. Electronic Research Administration is the term used to describe the method most sponsors are employing to handle the grant application, award, and management process. Some examples of eRA tools for proposal submission include:

  • NSPIRES (NASA Solicitation and Proposal Integrated Review and Evaluation System) – the web interface for submitting proposals to NASA.
  • proposalCENTRAL – an e-grantmaking website shared by many government, non-profit, and private grant-making organizations. The participating grantmakers use these services to facilitate the application and review process. Participants include the American Cancer Society, the American Lung Association, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and other funding agencies.
  • Research.gov is a partnership of federal research-oriented grant-making agencies led by the National Science Foundation.
  • Agency System-to-System –The interface gives the grantor agency an alternative to the Grants.gov manual-login. The agency System-to-System interface helps save time and resources by providing direct interaction between an institution's system and Grants.gov to
    • automatically download/retrieve grant applications
    • send applicants automated acknowledgement of application receipt
    • assign agency-specific tracking number.

Encumbrance

Funds that have been set aside or "claimed" for projected expenses pending actual expenditure of the funds.

Endowment

A fund usually in the form of an income-generating investment, established to provide long-term support for faculty/research positions (e.g., endowed chair).

Equipment

Tangible personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-federal entity for financial statement purposes, or $5,000.  -2 CFR § 200.33

Equipment Use/Loan Agreements

An agreement that provides for a party to use or to be loaned a piece of equipment.

Expanded Authorities

An awardee has expanded authorities for specific actions that normally require the awarding agency's prior consent. 

Expenditures

Charges made by a non-federal entity to a project or program for which a federal award was received. 

(a) The charges may be reported on a cash or accrual basis, as long as the methodology is disclosed and is consistently applied. 

(b) For reports prepared on a cash basis, expenditures are the sum of: (1) cash disbursements for direct charges for property and services; (2) the amount of indirect expense charged; (3) the value of third-party in-kind contributions applied; and (4) the amount of cash advance payments and payments made to subrecipients. 

(c) For reports prepared on an accrual basis, expenditures are the sum of: (1) cash disbursements for direct charges for property and services; (2) the amount of indirect expense incurred; (3) the value of third-party in-kind contributions applied; and (4) the net increase or decrease in the amounts owed by the non-federal entity for: (i) goods and other property received; (ii) services performed by employees, contractors, subrecipients, and other payees; and (iii) programs for which no current services or performance are required such as annuities, insurance claims, or other benefit payments.

Expiration Date

The date signifying the end of the performance period, as indicated on the Notice of Grant Award.

Export

An export is any shipment or transmission of controlled items or information out of the U.S. or release of controlled items and information to a foreign person wherever located. A "release" of controlled technology may occur visually, through oral disclosure or by the application of controlled information to situations or circumstances outside of the U.S.

Export Control

A clause that details the restrictions placed on sending, taking, or carrying an item or information out of the country or revealing an item or information to a foreign national within a country.

Extension

An additional period of time given by the sponsor to an organization for the completion of work on an approved grant or contract. An extension allows previously allocated funds to be spent after the original expiration date.

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Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Costs

Costs that are incurred for common or joint objectives, therefore, cannot be identified readily and specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity. General categories of indirect costs include general administration (accounting, payroll, purchasing, etc.), sponsored project administration, plant operation and maintenance, library expenses, departmental administration expenses, depreciation or use allowance for buildings and equipment, and student administration and services.  F&A costs are synonymous with Indirect Costs.

Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Rate

The mechanism used to reimburse infrastructure support costs associated with sponsored research and other sponsored projects. It is essentially an overhead rate.   

The payment of facilities & administrative (F&A) costs is generally based upon rates established through a formal agreement between the grantee organization and the cognizant federal agency. The negotiated rate is applied to the applicable direct cost base to determine the amount of F&A costs to be awarded. The Health and Human Services (HHS) Division of Cost Allocation Regional Offices negotiates F&A rates for educational institutions, hospitals, and non-profit organizations.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of Financial Advisory Services negotiates an F&A rate for commercial (for-profit) organizations. HHS/NIH recognizes F&A cost rates applicable to research activities negotiated by other federal agencies adjusted for the HHS treatment of independent (self-sponsored) research and development (IR&D) costs.

Exceptions to reimbursement of F&A costs on certain NIH grants are described in section 7.4 of the NIH GPS.

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)

The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the principal set of rules in the Federal Acquisition Regulation System. The FAR System governs the "acquisition process" by which the federal government purchases goods and services. The process consists of three phases: need recognition and acquisition planning, contract formation, and contract administration.

Financial Conflict of Interest (FCOI)

Financial Conflict of Interests (FCOI) means a significant financial interest that could directly and significantly affect the design, conduct, or reporting of PHS-funded research.  42 C.F.R. § 50.603

Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP)

The Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) is a cooperative initiative among federal agencies and institutional recipients of federal funds. It was established to increase research productivity by streamlining the administrative process and minimizing the administrative burden on principal investigators.

FedBizOpps

The purpose of Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps) is to collect, maintain, and disseminate information on federal procurement solicitations to the public.  https://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/pdi/eb/fedbizopps.html

Federal Register

A daily publication of the U.S. federal government that issues proposed and final administrative regulations of federal agencies found online at https://www.federalregister.gov

Final Report

The final technical or financial report required by the sponsor to complete a research project.

Fiscal Year (FY)

Any twelve month period for which annual accounts are kept (e.g., July 1 through June 30).  A fiscal year is also referred to as financial year, or sometimes budget year.  The most important fiscal year for the economy is the federal government's fiscal year. It defines the U.S. government's budget. It runs from October 1 of the budget's prior year through September 30 of the year being described.

Fixed Rate

A pricing model that provides a set cost rate for a defined unit, such as per patient cost in a clinical trial, where the total cost of the contract is unknown at award.

Fixed-Amount Award

A type of grant agreement under which the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity provides a specific level of support without regard to actual costs incurred under the federal award. This type of federal award reduces some of the administrative burden and recordkeeping requirements for both the non-federal entity and federal awarding agency or pass-through entity. Accountability is based primarily on performance and results.

Fly America Act

All air travel and cargo transportation services funded by the federal government are required to use a "U.S. flag" air carrier service. You can find a complete list of certified U.S. flag air carriers on transportation.gov.

This requirement applies to:

  • Federal government employees and their dependents;
  • Consultants, contractors, and grantees; and
  • Other travelers whose travel is paid for by the federal government.

You cannot cross the U.S. border to use a foreign airline to avoid being subject to the Fly America Act. If your travel does not comply with the Fly America Act, the government will not reimburse your airline ticket.

Authority for the Fly America Act comes from 49 U.S.C. 40118

Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)

A funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is a publicly available document by which a federal agency makes known its intentions to award discretionary grants or cooperative agreements, usually as the result of competition for funds. Funding opportunity announcements may be known as program announcements, requests for application, notices of funding availability, solicitations, or other names depending on the agency and type of program. Funding opportunity announcements can be found at Grants.gov, by accessing the Search Grants tab, and on the funding agency's or program's website.

Foreign Organization

An entity that is: 

(1) A public or private organization located in a country other than the United States and its territories that is subject to the laws of the country in which it is located, irrespective of the citizenship of project staff or place of performance; 

(2) A private nongovernmental organization located in a country other than the United States that solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public; 

(3) A charitable organization located in a country other than the United States that is nonprofit and tax exempt under the laws of its country of domicile and operation, and is not a university, college, accredited degree granting institution of education, private foundation, hospital, organization engaged exclusively in research or scientific activities, church, synagogue, mosque or other similar entities organized primarily for religious purposes; or 

(4) An organization located in a country other than the United States not recognized as a foreign public entity.

Foreign Person/Foreign National

A person who is not a U.S. citizen, lawful permanent resident (green card holder), or protected individual (formally granted asylum or refugee status). It also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership, trust, society, or any other entity or group that is not incorporated or organized to do business in the U.S., as well as international organizations, foreign governments, and any agency or subdivision of foreign governments (e.g., diplomatic missions). An equivalent term used by the Department of Commerce is "foreign national".

Foreign Public Entity

a foreign government or foreign governmental entity; 

a public international organization, which is an organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288-288f); 

an entity owned (in whole or in part) or controlled by a foreign government; or 

any other entity consisting wholly or partially of one or more foreign governments or foreign governmental entities.   -2 CFR § 25.330

Fringe Benefits

Employee benefits paid by the employer (e.g., FICA, worker's compensation, withholding tax, insurance, etc.).

Fundamental Research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena. 

Funding Cycle

Range of time during which proposals are accepted, reviewed, and funds are awarded. If a sponsor has standing proposal review committees (or boards) that meet at specified times during the year, application deadlines are set to correspond with those meetings. For some sponsors, if proposals are received too late to be considered in the current funding cycle, they may be held over for the next review meeting (i.e., National Science Foundation's Target Dates).

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Gifts

Gifts and bequests are awards given with few or no conditions specified. Gifts may be provided to establish an endowment or to provide direct support for existing programs. Frequently, gifts are used to support developing programs for which other funding is not available. The unique flexibility, or lack of restrictions, makes gifts attractive sources of support.  (see also Donation)

Governing Law

A clause that specifies which state's laws will be used to interpret a particular agreement.

Grant

An award of financial assistance, including cooperative agreements, in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, by the federal government to an eligible grantee. The term does not include technical assistance which provides services instead of money, or other assistance in the form of revenue sharing, loans, loan guarantees, interest subsidies, insurance, or direct appropriations. Also, the term does not include assistance, such as a fellowship or other lump-sum award, which the grantee is not required to account for.  -10 CFR § 600.202

Grant Agreement

A legal instrument of financial assistance between a federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-federal entity that, consistent with 31 U.S.C. 6302, 6304

is used to enter into a relationship the principal purpose of which is to transfer anything of value from the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to the non-federal entity to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the U.S. (see 31 U.S.C. 6101(3)); and not to acquire property or services for the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity's direct benefit or use; 

is distinguished from a cooperative agreement in that it does not provide for substantial involvement between the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-federal entity in carrying out the activity contemplated by the federal award; 

does not include an agreement that provides only: (1) direct U.S. government cash assistance to an individual; (2) a subsidy; (3) a loan; (4) a loan guarantee; or (5) insurance.  -2 CFR § 200.51

Grant/Contract Officer

A recipient's designated individual who is officially responsible for the business management aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract. Serving as the counterpart to the business officer of the sponsor organization, the grant/contract officer is responsible for all business management matters associated with the review, negotiation, award, and administration of a grant or contract and interprets the associated administration policies regulations, and provisions.

Grants Officer

The individual designated by the sponsoring agency business and administrative aspects of a grant or cooperative agreement, including such activities as evaluating grant applications for administrative content and compliance with statutes, regulations, and guidelines; negotiating grants; providing consultation and technical assistance to recipients; and administering grants and providing prior approvals after award. The individual may also have authority to obligate the agency to fund an award. Depending on the sponsor and specific duties, a grants officer may also be called a grants manager, grants administrator, or grants specialist.

Grants.gov

Grants.gov was established as a governmental resource named the E-Grants Initiative, part of the President's 2002 Fiscal Year Management Agenda to improve government services to the public. Grants.gov is a central storehouse for information on over 1,000 grant programs and provides access to approximately $500 billion in annual awards. It is the main portal for finding and applying for federal grant opportunities.

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Hospital

A facility licensed as a hospital under the law of any state or a facility operated as a hospital by the U.S., a state, or a subdivision of a state.  -2 CFR 200.52

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Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

A federally mandated committee, qualified through the experience and expertise of its members, that oversee its institution's animal care and use program, facilities, and procedures.

Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBC)

Review boards appointed by an institution to evaluate and approve potentially biohazardous lines of research. IBCs were established in 1976 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.

Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quality Contract (IDIQ)

A master agreement where the sponsor can purchase goods and services on a time and materials basis at costs that the sponsor previously determined were fair and reasonable.

iEDISON

iEdison (which stands for Interagency Edison) helps government grantees and contractors comply with a federal law, the Bayh-Dole ActBayh-Dole regulations require that government funded inventions be reported to the federal agency who made the award.  https://s-edison.info.nih.gov/iEdison

Invitation for Bid (IFB)

An invitation for bid (IFB) or invitation to bid is an invitation to contractors or equipment suppliers, through a bidding process, to submit a proposal on a specific project to be realized or product or service to be furnished.

Institute of Higher Education (IHE)

According to 20 USCS § 1001(a), an Institute of Higher Education (IHE) is an educational institution in any State that—

(1) admits as regular students only persons having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate, or persons who meet the requirements of section 1091(d) of this title;

(2) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond secondary education;

(3) provides an educational program for which the institution awards a bachelor's degree or provides not less than a 2-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree, or awards a degree that is acceptable for admission to a graduate or professional degree program, subject to review and approval by the Secretary;

(4) is a public or other nonprofit institution; and

(5) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association, or if not so accredited, is an institution that has been granted pre-accreditation status by such an agency or association that has been recognized by the Secretary for the granting of pre-accreditation status, and the Secretary has determined that there is satisfactory assurance that the institution will meet the accreditation standards of such an agency or association within a reasonable time.  -20 USCS § 1001(a)

Incremental Funding

A method of funding contracts that provides specific spending limits below the total estimated costs. These limits may be exceeded only at the contractor's own risk. Each increment is, in essence, a funding action.

Indemnification/Hold Harmless

An indemnification or hold harmless clause may be included so the other party to the contract is reimbursed against loss or damage should a legal dispute ensue with respect to the contract or agreement. A hold harmless agreement is also called a save harmless agreement. 

Independent Parties

A clause that states that, as a result of the contract, the parties have not created a relationship in which one party is an employee or legal representative of the other party.

Indirect Costs

See Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Costs

Indirect Cost Rate

See Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Cost Rate

In-kind

Contributions or assistance in a form other than money, such as, equipment, materials, or services if recognized value that are offered in lieu of cash.

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Any board, committee or other groups formally designated by an institution to review, to approve the initiation of, and to conduct a periodic review of, biomedical research involving human subjects. The primary purpose of the review is to assure the protection of the rights and welfare of the human subjects.  -CFR § 56.102

Intangible property

Property having no physical existence, such as trademarks, copyrights, patents, and patent applications and property, such as loans, notes, and other debt instruments, lease agreements, stock, and other instruments of property ownership (whether the property is tangible or intangible).

Intellectual Property

Creative works or ideas embodied in a form that can be shared or can enable others to recreate, emulate, or manufacture them. An intellectual property agreement is a document executed between or among collaborating institutions that sets forth the rights and responsibilities of each institution pertaining to the intellectual property that may be created jointly by the collaborating researchers as well as intellectual property created independently by each. Public Law 96-517, Bayh-Dole Act, is the law that governs the rights to inventions discovered at educational institutions or small businesses under projects funded in whole or in part with federal funds. The Bayh-Dole Act is codified in the federal regulations in 37 CFR 401.   

Intellectual Property Licensing

A clause that defines intellectual property, who owns any created intellectual property, and how any intellectual property is shared or licensed.

Intergovernmental Personnel Agreement (IPA)

Allows university faculty to temporarily be assigned to a federal agency while maintaining their university status (usually less than 3 years). Salary, fringes, and travel are usually covered.

Interim Funding

Authorization to expend funds on a project to a specified limit before the award document has been received from the sponsor.  (See also Provisional Fund Request – PFR)

Internal Control Over Compliance Requirements for Federal Awards

A process implemented by a non-federal entity designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of the following objectives for U.S. federal awards:

Transactions are properly recorded and accounted for, in order to:

permit the preparation of reliable financial statements and federal reports;

maintain accountability over assets; and

demonstrate compliance with U.S. federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the federal award;

Transactions are executed in compliance with:

statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the federal award that could have direct and material effect on a federal program;

any other federal statutes and regulations that are identified in the Compliance Supplement; and

funds, property, and other assets are safeguarded against loss from unauthorized use or disposition.  -2 CFR § 200.62

Internal Controls

A process, implemented by a non-federal entity, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories: (a) effectiveness and efficiency of operations; (b) reliability of reporting for internal and external use; and (c) compliance with applicable laws and regulations.  -29 CFR § 99.105

Investigator-Initiated Proposal

A proposal submitted to a sponsor that is not in response to an RFP, RFA, or a specified program announcement.

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Just-in-Time (JIT)

Refers to requests received from a sponsor, specifically the NIH, asking for additional and updated information for a previously submitted grant that has been peer-reviewed. NIH JIT requests are responded to through eRA Commons and are found in the Commons Status section of the eRA system. 

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Key Personnel

The personnel considered to be of primary importance to the successful conduct of a research project. The term usually applies to the senior members of the project staff.

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Legal Authorized Representative (LAR)

An individual or judicial or other body authorized under applicable law to consent on behalf of a prospective subject to the subject's participation in the procedure(s) involved in the research (45 CFR 46.102(c)). 

Legal Permanent Resident/Other Protected Persons (LPR)

Lawful permanent residents (LPRs), also known as green card holders, are non-citizens who are lawfully authorized to live permanently within the U.S. LPRs may accept an offer of employment without special restrictions, own property, receive financial assistance at public colleges and universities, and join the Armed Forces. 

Level of Effort

A firm-fixed-price, level-of-effort term contract requires:

The contractor to provide a specified level of effort, over a stated period of time, on work that can be stated only in general terms; and 

The Government to pay the contractor a fixed dollar amount.  48 CFR § 16.207

Limitation of Cost

Limitation of Cost (LOC) is a mandatory clause for cost-reimbursement type contracts. Under the clause, the sponsor is not obligated to reimburse the contractor for costs in excess of the stated amount. The contractor, however, is not obligated to continue performance once expenses reach the stated amount.  A contractor must issue a written notification to the principal (customer), when the estimated total cost of the project or work is expected to be either higher or significantly lower than the original estimate.

Limited Submission Opportunity (LSO)

A Limited Submission Opportunity (LSO) is a funding opportunity from external funding agencies that set a limit on the number of proposals or applications that will be accepted from an institution, university, or campus. 

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Matching Grant

A grant that requires a specified portion of the cost of a supported item of equipment or project be obtained from other sources. The required match may be more or less than the amount of the grant. Some matching grants require that the additional funds be obtained from sources outside the recipient organization. Many matching grants are paid in installments, the payments coinciding with the attainment of pre-specified levels of additional funding. Matching grants are very common in the sciences, especially for equipment. They are standard practice in some government agencies. (Also see Challenge Grant)

Matching or Cost Sharing

The portion of project costs not paid by sponsor funds (unless otherwise authorized by federal statute or nonprofit). This may include the value of allowable third-party in-kind contributions, as well as expenditures by the recipient.  A general term, used as a noun or adjective, that can describe virtually any type of arrangement in which more than one party supports research, equipment acquisition, demonstration projects, programs, institutions. Example: A university receives a grant for a project estimated to have a total cost of $100,000. The sponsor agrees to pay 75% ($75,000) and the university agrees to pay 25% ($25,000). The $25,000 is the cost-sharing component.  2 CFR § 200.306

Material Transfer Agreements (MTA)

A contract that governs the transfer of tangible research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use it for his or her own research purposes. The MTA defines the rights of the provider and the recipient with respect to the materials and any derivatives. 

Memoranda of Understanding/Agreements (MOU/MOA)

A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is a formal document describing the broad outlines of an agreement that two or more parties have reached through negotiations. The agreement is between the lead agency/applicant and a partnering entity. It is not a legally binding document but does indicate a voluntary agreement to assist in the implementation plans of a grant-funded collaborative project and signals the intention of all parties to move forward with a contract. 

Misconduct in Science

Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.  It does not include honest error or honest differences in interpretations or judgments of data. 

Mission

A sponsor's stated purpose, which is designed to address a specified set of problems. Almost all federal research agencies are designated as mission agencies.

Modification

An award document that modifies any aspect of an existing award. Examples include: carryover approvals, adding or deleting special terms and conditions, changes in funding levels (including NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates, NIH's Minority Supplement, DOD's ASSERT Programs), administrative changes initiated by the agency, extensions that include changes in terms and change of principal investigator.  Or, a clause that details how a research contract is changed after is initially executed.

Modified Total Direct Costs (MTDC)

All direct salaries and wages, applicable fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and up to the first $25,000 of each subaward (regardless of the period of performance of the subawards under the award). MTDC excludes equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, rental costs, tuition remission, scholarships and fellowships, participant support costs and the portion of each subaward in excess of $25,000. Other items may only be excluded when necessary to avoid a serious inequity in the distribution of indirect costs, with the approval of the cognizant agency for indirect costs and are noted in that organization approved rate agreement.  -2 CFR § 200.68

Mutual Agreement

The parties' mutual understanding of a contract and that both parties agreed to the contract's form and substance.

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National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the U.S. Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.  NASA's vision statement is "To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind."  NASA was created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 in response to the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. The precursor to NASA was the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics created in 1946.  https://www.nasa.gov/

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)

The National Endowment for the Arts is an independent federal agency that funds, promotes, and strengthens the creative capacity of our communities by providing all Americans with diverse opportunities for arts participation.  https://www.arts.gov/

National Institute of Health (NIH)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the steward of medical and behavioral research in the U.S. Its mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and disability.  The NIH is administratively under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The NIH consists of 20-some separate Institutes and Centers.  https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/mission-goals

National Science Foundation (NSF)

The mission of the National Science Foundation is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes.  NSF is a U.S. government Independent agency and is the only federal agency whose mission includes support for all non-medical fields of science and engineering.  https://www.nsf.gov/about

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is an independent federal agency that funds, promotes, and strengthens the creative capacity of our communities by providing all Americans with diverse opportunities for arts participation.  https://www.arts.gov/

New and Competing Proposals

Proposals that are submitted for the first time or ongoing projects that must re-compete for funding prior to expiration of the original award.

New Award

An award not previously awarded or a renewal or continuation award treated as a new award by the sponsor and given a new agency number.

No-Cost Extension

An extension of the period of performance beyond the expiration date to allow the principal investigator to finish a project. Usually, no additional costs are provided.

Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA)

A written contract that officially recognizes a legally binding relationship between two parties — the Disclosing Party and Receiving Party. Upon signing an NDA, the two parties agree not to disclose certain proprietary or confidential information explicitly outlined in the NDA agreement.

Non-Federal Entity

A state, local government, Indian tribe, institute of higher education (IHE), or non-profit organization that carries out a U.S. federal award as a recipient or subrecipient.  -2 CFR § 200.69

Nonprofit Organization

Any corporation, trust, association, cooperative, or other organization, not including IHEs, but may include IHEs auxiliary organizations that: (a) is operated primarily for scientific, educational, service, charitable, or similar purposes in the public interest; (b) is not organized primarily for profit; and (c) uses net proceeds to maintain, improve, or expand the operations of the organization.  -2 CFR § 200.70

Notice

A clause that details the legal communication (notification) process of the parties.

Notice of Award (NOA)

The official, legally binding document that notifies the recipient of the award of a grant, contains or references all of the terms and conditions of the grant, and provides the documentary basis for obligating federal funds for the award. May also be referred to as a notice of grant award (NOGA) or federal award notice. 

Notice of Grant Award (NOGA)

A legal document given to the intended organization that indicates an award has been made and that funds may be requested from the designated HHS payment system or office. The notice of grant award shows the amount of Federal funds authorized for obligation and the budget period for the approved project. 

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Offer

Where one party promises to the other party to take or refrain from an action.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) serves the President of the United States in overseeing the implementation of his vision across the Executive Branch. Specifically, OMB's mission is to assist the President in meeting his policy, budget, management, and regulatory objectives and to fulfill the agency's statutory responsibilities.  https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/

Order of Precedence

A clause that details in which order any agreement provisions are ranked (take precedence).

Organizational Conflict of Interest (OCI)

OCI exists when work performed by a contractor firm or an individual on a federal contract: (a) results in an unfair competitive advantage for the contractor; or (b) impairs the contractor's objectivity in performing federal contract work.  OCI or the appearance of OCI must be avoided at all costs because OCI can lead to the contractor (or an individual) being excluded from a contract competition, having a contract terminated, or being suspended/debarred from performing future federal contract work. 

Other Transaction Authority (OTA)

Other Transaction Authority (OTA) is a streamlined procedure that federal agencies may use to procure innovative research or prototypes, without the constraints of a typical contract, grant, or cooperative agreement (hence it is not subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulation or the Uniform Guidance, 2 CFR 200).  This flexibility has made OTA an increasingly popular choice for federal acquisitions in recent years.

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Parent Announcement or Program Announcement (PA)

Broad funding opportunity announcements (For Unsolicited or Investigator-Initiated Applications) allowing applicants to submit investigator-initiated applications for specific activity codes. They are open for up to 3 years and use standard due dates.  grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/parent_announcements.htm

Party (singular)/Parties (plural)

The signatories to a contract.

Program Announcement with Set-aside Funds (PAS)

Program Announcement with Set-aside Funds (PAS) are small business set-asides that help small businesses compete for and win federal contracts. There are two kinds of set-aside contracts: competitive set-asides and sole-source set-asides.  https://www.sba.gov/.../government-contracting-programs/what-small-business-set-aside

Pass-through Entity (PTE)

The federal government allows grant recipients to act as pass-through entities in order to provide funding to other recipients. The pass-through entity receives federal funds which it "passes on" or "passes through it" to other recipients. The entity that receives funds from a pass-through entity is considered a subrecipient. 

Patient Care Costs Rates

In instances where the proposed project represents a clinical research study, funds may be requested in a grant application for Patient Care Costs. Due to the special nature of these costs, a detailed explanation is required in the application as to how the total amount requested was determined. In situations where the amount requested for patient care results in an award that exceeds $100,000 in that category for a single budget period, the grantee organization must either have in place or take steps to develop a negotiated patient care rate agreement with HHS.  Hospitals and nonprofit organizations with questions concerning the negotiation of F&A cost rate agreements or patient care rate agreements should contact the appropriate office listed in Part III, contacts of the NIH GPS.

Payment of Costs/Billing

The amount of payment and how that payment is structured from one party to the other in a contract.  It is important to note that policies may differ slightly from agency to agency, but NIH references are usually highly regarded and respected.  For federal funding see: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/nihgps/HTML5/section_7/7.9_allowability_of_costs_activities.htm

Peer Review

A system using reviewers who are the professional equals of the principal investigator or program director who is to be responsible for directing or conducting the proposed project. It is a form of objective review. Peer review is legislatively mandated in some programs and in other programs is administratively required.  NIH - The objective of peer review is to evaluate and rate the scientific and technical merit of research, career development, or research training grant applications and contract proposals.  www.nichd.nih.gov/grants-funding/peer-review/Pages/default.aspx

Public Health Service (PHS)

The mission of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHS) is to protect, promote, and advance the health and safety of our Nation. As America's uniformed service of public health professionals, the Commissioned Corps achieves its mission through: Rapid and effective response to public health needs. 

Program Director (PD)

Serving in the role of Program/Project Director (PD) on a sponsored project is a privilege that carries both significant benefits and responsibilities. The PD is defined as the individual(s) judged by the institution to have the appropriate level of authority and responsibility to direct the project or program supported by the grant. 

Principal Investigator (PI)

A Principal Investigator is the primary individual responsible for the preparation, conduct, and administration of a research grant, cooperative agreement, training or public service project, contract, or other sponsored project in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and institutional policy governing the conduct of sponsored research. 

Program Officer/Project Officer (PO)

Program/Project Officer (PO) is a sponsor's designated individual officially responsible for the technical, scientific, or programmatic aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract. Serving as the counterpart to the principal investigator/project director of the grantee/contractor organization, the program/project officer deals with the grantee/contractor organization staff to assure programmatic progress. (For definition of business officer, see Grant/Contract Officer.) 

Post-Differential Allowance

Expenses authorized for employees based abroad to provide additional compensation for services as a recruitment and retention tool. When the allowance is authorized, the employee's base salary is increased accordingly.

Pre-Proposal

A brief description, usually 2-10 pages, of research plans and estimated budget that is sometimes submitted to determine the interest of a particular sponsor prior to submission of a formal proposal. Also termed Preliminary Proposal.

Prime Recipient

A recipient is an entity (typically, but not limited to, a non-federal entity) that receives an award directly from a sponsoring agency to carry out an activity or specific scope of work. Alternative terms include grant recipient, prime recipient, prime, grantee, awardee, or other similar terms.  In a sponsor—prime—subrecipient relationship, the prime recipient, is the pass-through entity. A pass-through entity is a non-federal entity that provides a subaward to a subrecipient to carry out part of a federal program. 

Prior Approval

The requirement for written documentation of permission to use project funds for purposes not in the approved budget, or to change aspects of the program from those originally planned and approved. Prior approval must be obtained before the performance of the act that requires such approval under the terms of the agreement.

Priority Score

A score derived from the rating given a research proposal by each member on a review committee. It is used to help determine which approve proposals will be granted awards, based on funds available.

Progress Report

Periodic, scheduled reports required by the sponsor summarizing research progress to date. Technical, fiscal, and invention reports may be required.

Project Period (PP)

The total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved and should be in the award announcement. A project period may consist of one or more budget periods.  The total project period consists of the initial competitive segment, any additional competitive segments authorized by approval of a competing continuation application, and any non-competing extensions. NIH policy limits each competitive segment to a maximum of 5 years (exclusive of non-competing extensions). NIH Standard Terms of Award include the provision for grantees to extend the final budget period of a previously approved project period one time for a period of up to 12 months, without additional NIH funds. (See Budget Period)

Proposal

An application for funding that contains all information necessary to describe project plans, staff capabilities, and funds requested. Formal proposals are officially approved and submitted by an organization in the name of a PI but awarded to the PI's institution.

Provision

A written term or condition used only in solicitations and applying only before contract award.

Publication

A clause that defines whether and how a party, usually the research institution, can publish the results of the research contract.

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Research and Development (R&D)

Research and Development (R&D) is any activity which is: 

a systematic, intensive study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the subject studied; 

a systematic study directed specifically toward applying new knowledge to meet a recognized need; or 

a systematic application of knowledge toward the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.    -15 USC § 638(e)(5)

Researcher's Dashboard

Wayne State system providing one-point access to "live" grant and contract information pulled from Banner and Cayuse in a simplified format.  https://research.wayne.edu/spa/dashboard

Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)

Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) is the practice of scientific investigation with integrity. It involves the awareness and application of established professional norms and ethical principles in the performance of all activities related to scientific research. Institutional policies and reporting are required.  https://grants.nih.gov/policy/research_integrity/index.htm

Reasonable Cost

Does not exceed that which would be incurred by a prudent person under the circumstances prevailing at the time the decision was made to incur the cost.

Re-budget

The act of amending the budget by moving funds from one category or line item to another. (See Budget Adjustment)

RDP

Research Development Professional

Recipient

An entity (typically, but not limited to, a non-federal entity) that receives an award directly from a sponsoring agency to carry out an activity or specific scope of work. Alternative terms include grant recipient, prime recipient, prime, grantee, awardee, or other similar terms. 

Re-export

Transfer of controlled technology from one foreign country to another.

Regulations

The contractual rules and procedures governing sponsored research projects or a rule or directive made and maintained by an authority.

Regulatory Framework

A system of regulations and the means to enforce them, established by the federal government to regulate a specific activity.

Renewal

Applicable to grants and cooperative agreements only. A competitively reviewed proposal requesting additional funds extending the scope of work beyond the current project period.

Reporting/Deliverables

A clause that defines what the party who is performing the research must provide to the sponsor in consideration of payment.

Representations and Certifications

A recipient's affirmation that it will comply with specific legal requirements as it executes a funded grant or contract. For most federal awards these "assurances" are submitted electronically by the AOR. This is commonly referred to as "reps and certs".

Request for Applications (RFA)

Announcements that indicate the availability of funds for a topic of specific interest to a sponsor. Proposals submitted in response to RFAs generally result in the awards of a grant. Specific grant announcements may be published in the Federal Register and/or specific sponsor publications. (See also Broad Agency Announcements)

Request for Proposal (RFP)

Announcements that specify a topic of research, methods to be used, product to be delivered, and appropriate applicants sought. Proposals submitted in response to RFPs generally result in the award of a grant. Notices of federal RFPs are published in the FedBizOps.

Request for Quotations (RFQ)

RFQs are issued to fulfill a line item proposed or awarded on a research grant or contract. For example, if equipment is needed for a proposed grant, the quote is included in the proposal to justify the requested amount to the sponsor. If awarded, the quote is then activated and a purchase order is submitted. 

Restricted Parties

Several U.S. government agencies maintain one or more lists of individuals or entities that are barred or otherwise restricted from entering into certain types of transactions with U.S. persons.

Revision

A modified and resubmitted version of a proposal or award as requested by the Principal Investigator or sponsoring agency.

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Salaries and Wages (S&W)

Payments made to employees of the institution for work performed. Specifically, salary is the fixed amount of compensation that is paid for the performance of an employee. Wage is the variable amount of compensation which is paid on the basis of hours spent in finishing a certain amount of work.   

Salary Cap

The limit placed on a salary paid out to employees set and enforced by the government or non-federal sponsor. The NIH salary cap is used in most cases, which ties this level annually to the executive pays scales of the federal government. It is adjusted annually.   

System for Award Management (SAM)

The System for Award Management (SAM) is nine federal procurement systems combined into one along with the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. SAM was designed to streamline the process of both obtaining and procuring federal contracts by integrating these systems.  As a grant applicant, you are responsible for keeping your System for Award Management (SAM) registration active and up-to-date every year. The leading cause of rejected applications is an expired SAM registration. Check that your SAM registration is active early in the application process to avoid the possibility of a rejected application.  https://www.sam.gov

Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR)

A Small Business Innovate Research (SBIR) is an agency administered program supported by earmarked federal funds, making grants to small business entities.

Scope of Work

The aims, objectives, and purpose of a grant or contract, and depending on the nature of the project may include the methodology, approach, analyses, or other activities, and the tools, technologies, and timeframes needed to meet the award's objectives. This includes the plan included in the original application, along with any approved modifications.

Senior Personnel

Senior personnel, more commonly referred to as key personnel, are individuals identified on a research project who contribute to the scientific development or execution of a project in a substantive, measurable way. See key personnel.

Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)

Grant applications and/or programs to fund small business "teamed" with research institutions.

Small Grant

A special type of award, often limited to a beginning researcher. Typically, such an award may be obtained for one year only.

Sponsored Program Administration (SPA) Power BI Cayuse Reports

Wayne State University reporting system that assists with tracking grant and proposal information within modules that provide a comprehensive and customizable output of vetted data from the Cayuse Research Suite.  https://research.wayne.edu/spa/spapowerbireports

Solicitation

Any federal acquisition-related request to submit offers or quotations.

Sponsor

The organization that funds a project.

Sponsored Programs

An externally funded activity that is governed by specific terms and conditions. Sponsored projects must be separately budgeted and accounted for subject to terms of the sponsoring organization. Sponsored projects may include grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements for research, training, and other public service activities. 

Stipend

A payment made to an individual under a fellowship or training grant in accordance with pre-established levels to provide for the individual's living expenses during the period of training.

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Analysis (SWOT)

A study undertaken by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and threats. These are commonly used in business to evaluate companies and industries. 

Subaward

An award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal award received by the pass-through entity. It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a Federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract.

Subcontract, Subgrant, or Subagreement

A document written under the authority of, and consistent with the terms and conditions of an award (a grant, contract or cooperative agreement), that transfers a portion of the research or substantive effort of the prime award to another institution or organization. 

Subrecipient

An entity that receives a subaward from a pass-through entity (prime recipient) to carry out portion of the scope of work; but does not include an individual that is a beneficiary of such program. A subrecipient may also be a prime recipient of other awards directly from an awarding agency. 

Supplies

Supplies means all tangible personal property other than those described in § 200.33 Equipment. (Equipment means tangible personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes, or $5,000.)   2 CFR § 200.94

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Time and Materials (T&M)

Time and Materials (T&M) is a pricing model wherein the sponsor pays for allowable "time" or salary/fringe costs and "materials" or the other direct costs necessary for the work with an established maximum cost that the contractor may not exceed without prior sponsor approval.

Task Order Agreement (TOA)

A legally binding document authorizing work and appropriating funds as a supplement to a basic contract. Task order agreements result from a series of proposals (Master agreement). They may or may not all be funded to the same institution. They may be funded incrementally. However, the master proposal would include all tasks the funder anticipates to participate in or has the capacity to provide results. 

Total Direct Costs (TDC)

Total Direct Costs (TDC) are the total of all direct costs of a project.

Teaming/Collaboration Agreement

An agreement between two or more parties to participate in a research project or teaching activity.  An agreement used to provide a mechanism for two or more parties, usually a lead entity and a supporting entity, to combine their resources and work together toward the submission or a proposal in reference to a federal solicitation or other non-federal opportunity.

Technical Data

Recorded information, regardless of form or characteristic, of a scientific or technical nature. Often referred to as the "science" of a proposal.

Templates

Facsimiles of agency forms created with common software (i.e., MS Word, Excel, WordPerfect) that enable the user to fill out agency forms electronically.

Term/Period of Performance

A clause that defines the term of the contract.

Termination

A clause that defines the cancellation of remaining work under a contract.

Terms of Conditions

All legal requirements imposed on a grant by the funding agency, whether based on statue, regulation, policy, or other document referenced in the grant award, or specified by the grant award document itself. The award notice may include both standard and special conditions that are considered necessary to attain the grant's objectives, facilitate post award administration of the grant, conserve grant funds, or otherwise protect the sponsor's interests. 

Task Order Agreement (TOA)

A Task Order Agreement (TOA) is a legally binding document authorizing work and appropriating funds as a supplement to a basic contract. Task order agreements result from a series of proposals (Master agreement). They may or may not all be funded to the same institution. They may be funded incrementally. However, the master proposal would include all tasks the funder anticipates participating in or has the capacity to provide results. 

Total Project Costs

The total allowable direct and indirect costs incurred by the institution to carry out an approved project or activity.

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U.S. Person/U.S. National

A citizen of the U.S. 

Uniform Guidance

A set of rules and regulations from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that govern U.S. federal grants and cooperative agreements. The full document name is "Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards," which can be found at 2 CFR 200.  Uniform Guidance OMB Circular A-81: Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards.  Effective December 26, 2014, new Federal Guidance went into effect eliminating the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-110, and A-133. These Circulars will be replaced by A-81, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards. The purpose of the Guidance is to streamline administrative burdens, and to strengthen oversight of federal funds to reduce fraud, waste, and abuse.

Unilateral Award

An award made by a sponsor to an organization without considering competitive proposals. Unilateral awards are most often made when unsolicited proposals receive favorable treatment.

United States Code (USC)

A consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the U.S., prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. Each title, further divided into chapters, corresponds to a subject. For example, Title 42 is The Public Health and Welfare.

Unrestricted Funds

Monies with no requirements or restriction as to use or disposition. Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements are considered to be restricted funds, while gifts are usually considered unrestricted funds.

Unsolicited Proposal

Proposals submitted to sponsors that are not in response to an RFP, RFA, or program announcement. (See also Investigator-Initiated Proposal)

United States Code (USC)

A consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the U.S., prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives. Each title, further divided into chapters, corresponds to a subject. For example, Title 42 is The Public Health and Welfare.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

An executive agency (cabinet level) that provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on public policy, the best available science, and effective management.  The USDA is made up of 29 agencies. Selected agencies are as follows:

  • Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)
  • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
  • Animal Plant and inspection Service (APHIS)
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
  • National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)
  • National Research Initiative (NRI) is the flagship competitive grants program at USDA
  • Cooperative State Research and Cooperative Extension (CSREES) which funds competitive grants and formula grants to land grant institutions   - https://www.usda.gov/

Use of Names

A clause that defines what each party can do with the other party's name.

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Venue

A clause that defines the physical location of a court to hear a dispute.

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Warranty

A clause that defines how work that is found to be defective or not as agreed in the contract will be remedied. In institutions of higher education a warranty clause may be termed best efforts

Work for Hire

Designates the intellectual property rights to the person paying for the work and not its author.   -17 U.S.C. § 101